Des objets inanimés qui se comportent comme des êtres vivants, c’est toujours étonnant. Cette fois, des chercheurs sont parvenus à obtenir de la part de gouttelettes d’huile, qu’elles se comportent comme des prédatrices pour les unes et des proies pour les autres.

Dans la nature, le ballet des prédateurs poursuivant leurs proies apparaît plutôt terrifiant à nos yeux d’êtres humains qui savent en anticiper l’issue. La course de ces gouttelettes d’huile en chassant d’autres, en revanche, est des plus fascinante. Le spectacle nous est proposé par des chercheurs de l’université Penn State (États-Unis).

Pour reproduire le comportement observé chez des organismes vivants, leurs gouttelettes produisent une signalisation chimique qui leur permet de communiquer entre elles. « Nous avons conçu un système qui présente des interactions « non réciproques ». Une gouttelette est attirée par l’autre, tandis que l’autre est repoussée, comme c’est le cas pour un prédateur et sa proie », explique Lauren Zarzar, chimiste, dans un communiqué de l’université Penn State. Objectif : mieux comprendre les interactions dans les systèmes à plusieurs corps comme les bancs de poissons, les colonies bactériennes ou encore les essaims d’insectes.

L’idée de départ est simple. Des gouttelettes de deux huiles différentes sont déposées dans une solution d’eau et de surfactant. L’une des deux se dissout plus facilement que l’autre et ses gouttelettes émettent alors comme un nuage d’huile. « Les gouttelettes proies peuvent absorber une partie de l’huile libérée par les gouttelettes prédatrices. Il se crée comme un échange d’huile entre les gouttelettes. Lorsqu’elles se rapprochent suffisamment, il se crée une asymétrie dans le gradient chimique qui provoque une différence de tension superficielle à la surface des gouttelettes et amène la gouttelette prédatrice à se déplacer toujours plus vers la gouttelette proie alors même que la gouttelette proie est repoussée », explique Caleb Meredith, co-premier auteur de l’étude.

Les travaux des chercheurs font aussi apparaitre des comportements différents selon la composition chimique des huiles et des tensioactifs. De quoi régler la force des interactions entre gouttelettes. Et développer un modèle, basé sur les vitesses entre paires individuelles de gouttelettes, mais qui simule avec précision le mouvement de nombreuses gouttelettes, faisant apparaître une organisation différente lorsque les grappes sont plus grandes.

Ces gouttelettes semblent prendre vie.

Les travaux des chercheurs de l’université Penn State se concentrent sur l’aspect fondamental. Comprendre les processus qui contrôlent l’activité de ces objets inanimés. Mais « parfois, ces gouttelettes semblent prendre vie », commente Caleb Meredith. « Lorsque plusieurs se réunissent en grappes, elles peuvent commencer à tourner, s’arrêter et disparaître, se déplacer en spirales et même se séparer en grappes plus petites. »

Comprendre les danses de ces gouttelettes pourrait aider les chercheurs à appréhender les comportements et les interactions qui se jouent dans de grands groupes d’animaux. « Cela pourrait même nous mener à une réflexion sur les origines de la vie sur Terre. Un moment où des mélanges de composants chimiques simples ont dû, d’une manière ou d’une autre, s’auto-organiser en structures plus complexes », conclut Lauren Zarzar.

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