Accueil Uncategorized Coronavirus : 5 questions pour un vaccin

Coronavirus : 5 questions pour un vaccin

343

Santé

VidéoClassé sous :Coronavirus
, vaccin contre le coronavirus
, Vaccin

Publié le 17/11/2020

Plus de 47 vaccins contre le coronavirus sont en cours d’essai clinique dans le monde. Certains ont déjà avancé des résultats préliminaires encourageants. Alors que peut-on espérer de ces futurs vaccins ? Vont-ils nous permettre de retrouver une vie normale ? Cinq questions pour y voir plus clair.

Les premiers vaccins sont attendus pour janvier ou février 2021, dès qu’ils auront été approuvés par les autorités de santé. Mais ils ne seront pas disponibles en quantité suffisante pour tout le monde dès les premiers mois : les personnes fragiles et personnels de santé seront sans doute prioritaires.

Le laboratoire Pfizer avance une efficacité de 90 %, ce qui veut dire que ceux qui l’ont reçu sont 10 fois moins infectés que les autres. Le vaccin russe Spoutnik V prétend même une efficacité de 92 %. Un excellent chiffre en comparaison du vaccin contre la grippe, qui n’est efficace qu’à 30 % ou 60 % selon les années. Mais on ne sait rien sur la durée de l’immunité, et les vaccins ont aussi tendance à moins bien marcher chez les personnes âgées et obèses.

La priorité des laboratoires et des autorités de santé est de fournir un vaccin sûr et sans danger. Mais plusieurs des vaccins en développement reposent sur des techniques encore jamais éprouvées. Les effets graves de la vaccination demeurent toutefois extrêmement rares : moins d’un cas par 100.000 personnes vaccinées. Comme pour tous les médicaments, il faut établir un rapport risque/bénéfice.

Seuls 54 % des Français accepteraient de se faire vacciner contre la Covid-19. C’est l’un des taux le plus bas au monde. Le député européen Europe Écologie les Verts Yannick Jadot se dit favorable à une vaccination obligatoire pour tous les adultes français, mais cet avis reste minoritaire. La Haute autorité de santé préconise la pédagogie et le sens des responsabilités pour inciter les Français à faire vacciner et offrir une protection suffisante à la population.

« Le vaccin ne résoudra pas l’épidémie », met en garde Didier Sicard, ancien président du Comité consultatif national d’éthique. Même avec un vaccin efficace, il faudrait couvrir au moins 70 % pour la population pour parvenir à une immunité suffisante. Le virus risque aussi de muter, et le vaccin ne serait alors plus efficace. Vacciner les personnes à risque ou leur entourage pourrait toutefois transformer l’épidémie en maladie bénigne, un peu comme la grippe ; nous pourrions alors reprendre une vie presque normale.

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