Pour la plupart d’entre nous, l’affaire est entendue. Les dinosaures ont été rayés de la surface de la Terre par la chute d’une météorite de plusieurs kilomètres de diamètre. Mais, pour les chercheurs, un doute persiste. Ils envisagent que des éruptions volcaniques aient pu jouer un rôle.

Il y a 66 millions d’années, la Terre connaissait sa dernière extinction de masse en date. Avec elle, disparaissaient les dinosaures. Et longtemps, les chercheurs se sont interrogés sur le scénario qui a pu se jouer à ce moment-là. Depuis la fin des années 1980, l’hypothèse privilégiée est celle de la chute sur notre Planète d’un objet céleste. D’un diamètre compris entre 10 et 15 kilomètres. Qui serait tombé du côté de la péninsule du Yucatan, au Mexique. Un astéroïde, ont affirmé récemment des chercheurs de l’université du Texas (États-Unis).

Mais ce qui jette le trouble, c’est que la Terre a connu quatre autres extinctions de masse. Et pour trois d’entre elles, des éruptions volcaniques massives ont été reconnues. Elles auraient provoqué des changements climatiques suffisant à faire presque entièrement disparaître la vie sur notre Planète. C’est pourquoi les chercheurs se demandent encore si les émissions de gaz provenant d’éruptions volcaniques déclenchées dans la région des trapps du Deccan (Inde) auraient pu également jouer un rôle dans l’extinction des dinosaures.

Pour en avoir le cœur net, des chercheurs de l’Université de la ville de New York (États-Unis), entres autres, ont analysé la quantité de CO2 dégazée au cours de ces éruptions et le moment auquel le dégazage a eu lieu. Leur conclusion : le dégazage à partir des volumes de lave à lui seul n’est pas suffisant à provoquer le réchauffement climatique identifié par ailleurs par les chercheurs, plusieurs centaines de milliers d’années avant l’extinction de la fin du Crétacé.

Est-ce bien sûr ? Pas tout à fait, en réalité. Car lorsque les chercheurs ont pris en compte le dégazage des magmas restés sous la surface, ils ont constaté, au contraire, que suffisamment de CO2 aurait pu être libéré des trapps du Deccan pour réchauffer l’atmosphère de notre Planète.

Pour en arriver là, les chercheurs ont utilisé des lasers et des faisceaux d’ions dirigés vers de minuscules gouttelettes de magma piégées à l’intérieur de cristaux des trapps du Deccan datant de la fin du Crétacé. Ils ont ainsi mesuré la quantité de CO2 contenue dans ces gouttelettes. Après avoir établi, se basant sur des données relatives à la présence de baryum ou de niobium, la quantité de CO2 initialement présente dans ces mêmes gouttelettes.

Ils estiment ainsi que le dégazage du magma pourrait expliquer une montée des températures moyennes de la Terre d’environ 3 °C pendant les premières phases des éruptions du Deccan. Plus tard, en revanche, au moment même de l’extinction de masse, il semblerait que ce magma n’ait plus libéré autant de CO2.

Finalement, même si les émissions volcaniques n’ont pas joué un rôle majeur dans la disparition des dinosaures, les résultats des chercheurs de l’université de la ville de New York montrent bien l’impact qu’elles peuvent avoir sur notre climat. Et même sur l’habitabilité de notre Planète.

Pour en savoir plus

L’extinction des dinosaures, couramment attribuée à l’impact d’un astéroïde il y a 65 millions d’années, serait plus probablement due à une énorme éruption volcanique résultant d’un panache mantellique.

Article du CIRS paru le 21/09/2003

Un panache mantellique est une colonne de magma remontant du manteau inférieur à travers la lithosphère. Cette théorie, déjà défendue par de nombreux géologues et paléontologues, se trouve renforcée par de nouveaux éléments présentés lors d’une conférence internationale qui s’est tenue à l’Université de Cardiff, les 11 et 12 septembre.

Une telle éruption a eu lieu sous l’océan Indien plusieurs millions d’années avant l’extinction des dinosaures. Elle aurait eu un impact aussi dévastateur sur l’environnement que l’événement ayant entraîné la disparition de ces derniers, suggèrent des recherches dirigées par le Professeur Gerta Keller. Les chercheurs se sont basés sur l’analyse d’assemblages de micro-fossiles trouvés à l’intérieur de carottes prélevées dans les sédiments du fond océanique.

Ces deux événements volcaniques résultats de panaches mantelliques, dont l’un est supposé être à l’origine de la disparition des dinosaures, auraient duré entre un et deux millions d’années. Plus d’un million de kilomètres cubes de lave auraient alors été émis.

Les panaches mantelliques jouent un rôle important dans la formation des bassins océaniques et le remodelage des surfaces. Les écoulements massifs de gaz, de cendre et de lave ont un effet significatif sur le climat, déstabilisent l’environnement et peuvent dicter la course de l’évolution. Le débat sur l’extinction des dinosaures n’est pas clos.

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    قرص فلوکستین (Fluoxetine) داروی ضد افسردگی از مهارکننده انتخابی بازجذب سروتونین (SSRI) است.

    این دارو برای معالجه اختلال افسردگی اساسی، اختلال
    وسواس-اجباری (OCD)، پرخوری عصبی، اختلال
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    همچنین از این دارو برای درمان انزال زودرس استفاده
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    فلوکستین از طریق دهان مصرف می شود.

    برای آشنایی با سایر اطلاعات در مورد داروی فلوکستین در ادامه مطلب با کلینیک اعصاب و روان هیربد همراه باشید.

    نکات مهم در مورد فلوکستین
    داروی فلوکستین
    قرص فلوکستین
    کپسول خوراکی فلوکستین به عنوان داروهای
    با نام تجاری و همچنین یک داروی عمومی‌
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    فلوکستین به چهار شکل ارائه می‌شود: کپسول، کپسول تأخیر در انتشار،
    قرص و محلول. همه اشکال از طریق دهان استفاده می‌شوند.

    کپسول خوراکی فلوکستین برای درمان
    انواع مختلف افسردگی، اختلالات وسواسي اجباري، برخی از اختلالات خوردن و حملات هراس استفاده
    می‌شود. همچنین برای تسکین علائم اختلال دیسفوریک قبل از قاعدگی استفاده می‌شود.

    بیشتر بدانیم
    اختلال ملال پیش از قاعدگی
    هشدارهای مهم
    هشدار FDA: افکار و اقدامات خودکشی

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    فلوکستین می‌تواند خطر
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    سایر هشدارها
    هشدار سندرم سروتونین: این دارو می‌تواند یک وضعیت تهدید کننده زندگی به نام سندرم
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    بیماری شامل اضطراب، توهم (دیدن
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    آنها همچنین می‌توانند شامل رفلکس‌های بیش فعالی، تب،
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    در صورت وجود علائم این بیماری،
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    هشدار مانیا یا شیدایی: این دارو ممکن است باعث
    شیدایی شود. علائم این بیماری شامل انرژی
    بسیار زیاد، تحریک پذیری شدید، صحبت کردن بیشتر یا سریعتر از حد معمول، پرش افکار یا خواب شدید
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    هشدار سطح نمک پایین: این دارو ممکن است باعث شود سطح نمک خطرناکی در خون شما وجود
    داشته باشد. علائم این بیماری شامل سردرد، ضعف، سردرگمی‌، تمرکز
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    در صورت بروز علائم این بیماری، فوراً به پزشک مراجعه کنید.

    فلوکستین چیست؟
    فلوکستین دارویی تجویزی است.

    به شکل‌های کپسول، کپسول با تأخیر در
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    همه اشکال از طریق دهان مصرف می‌شوند.
    (کپسول تأخیر در انتشار در
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    کپسول خوراکی فلوکستین به صورت داروهای با نام تجاری Prozac و Prozac Weekly موجود
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    به عنوان داروی عمومی‌نیز در بازار موجود است.
    داروهای عمومی‌معمولاً قیمت کمتری نسبت به
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    این داروهای عمومی‌در برخی موارد، ممکن است به
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    کپسول خوراکی فلوکستین ممکن است به عنوان بخشی از درمان ترکیبی استفاده
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