C’est en embarquant un casque de réalité augmentée dans le cockpit qu’un pilote a pu mener un véritable combat aérien avec une projection virtuelle d’un chasseur chinois J-20.

Dans le monde de l’aviation militaire, c’est ce qu’on appelle un « Dogfight », un combat aérien tournoyant entre avions de chasse. Sauf que dans ce cas, c’est une intelligence artificielle qui est aux commandes de l’un des deux appareils. Après des expérimentations virtuelles sur simulateur, durant lesquelles l’IA avait remporté une victoire imparable, cette fois, ce sont des mélanges de virtualité et de réalité qui ont été employés pour ce combat. Cette expérience hybride a été menée par les sociétés américaines Red 6 et EpiSci, sur l’aéroport de Camarillo en Californie (USA).

Elle mettait en scène un véritable avion, le Berkut 500. Loin d’être un avion de chasse, il s’agit de ce que l’on appelle un plan « canard », un petit avion propulsé par une motorisation à hélice placé à l’arrière. Alors que l’aile principale en flèche est aussi à l’arrière, les plans canards sont présentés par deux petites ailes à l’avant de l’avion. Cette architecture lui permet de reproduire la maniabilité d’un avion de chasse.

L’autre avion impliqué, un chasseur furtif chinois J-20… n’existait pas ! Il était simulé et projeté en réalité augmentée (RA) sur une visière spéciale montée sur le casque du pilote du Berkut 500. Mis au point par l’entreprise Red 6, la technologie est baptisée Atars, pour « Système de réalité augmentée tactique aéroporté ». Le système fonctionne de concert avec l’instrumentation de bord de l’appareil et interagit avec la réalité du cockpit.

La réalité augmentée intégrée dans le casque interagit avec l’avionique du Berkut 500. © EpiSci – Red 6

Pour parvenir à une bonne représentation virtuelle en réalité augmentée en plein vol, cela suppose que la technologie soit parfaitement intégrée dans l’habitacle et que les capteurs internes et externes de l’appareil fournissent de façon fluide les données à traiter en temps réel. Aucune inertie n’est permise lorsque l’avion est en vol. L’histoire ne dit pas qui, de l’Homme ou de la machine, à remporter la victoire, mais l’expérimentation visait surtout à tester en conditions réelles les capacités de réalité augmentée. Pour y parvenir, EpiSci s’est appuyé sur ses travaux antérieurs dans le cadre du programme Alpha Dogfight de la Darpa (US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). Un programme de RA qui se limitait aux seuls simulateurs de vol.

Cette technologie pourrait permettre aux pilotes de chasse de s’entraîner au combat en conditions réelles, avec les sensations et les accélérations sans pour autant nécessiter la présence de deux avions. La facture est donc au minimum divisée par deux et surtout, l’IA et la réalité augmentée permettent de simuler de véritables chasseurs étrangers avec leurs particularités et leurs tactiques. De même, il est possible de représenter des véhicules et des installations au sol pour enrichir les scénarios. Outre le combat, l’équipement pourrait tout aussi bien faciliter la formation des pilotes sur des configurations de vol en formation serrée à plusieurs appareils sans craindre les collisions, et avec un bénéfice certain sur un plan économique.

Ce qu’il faut retenir

  • Deux sociétés américaines se sont associées pour mettre au point un système de réalité augmentée pour s’entraîner au combat aérien.
  • Les informations et la représentation virtuelle d’un chasseur chinois s’affichent directement sur la visière du casque du pilote.
  • L’avion utilisé est bardé de capteurs qui viennent interagir avec l’IA.

Intéressé par ce que vous venez de lire ?

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